Tritos NA, et al. Endocr Pract. 2015.
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OBJECTIVE: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is now recognized as a major public health concern in the United States and is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality in both children and adults. Several lines of evidence indicate that TBI-induced hypopituitarism is not infrequent in TBI survivors and may contribute to the burden of illness in this population. The goal of this article is to review the published data and propose an approach for the neuroendocrine evaluation and management of these patients.
METHODS: To identify pertinent articles, electronic literature searches were conducted using the following keywords: “traumatic brain injury,” “pituitary,” “hypopituitarism,” “growth hormone deficiency,” “hypogonadism,” “hypoadrenalism,” and “hypothyroidism.” Relevant articles were identified and considered for inclusion in the present article.
RESULTS: TBI-induced hypopituitarism appears to be more common in patients with severe TBI. However, patients with mild TBI or those with repeated, sports-, or blast-related TBI are also at risk for hypopituitarism. Deficiencies of growth hormone and gonadotropins appear to be most common and have been associated with increased morbidity in this population. A systematic approach is advised in order to establish the presence of pituitary hormone deficiencies and implement appropriate replacement therapies.
CONCLUSION: The presence of traumatic hypopituitarism should be considered during the acute phase as well as during the rehabilitation phase of patients with TBI. All patients with moderate to severe TBI require evaluation of pituitary function. In addition, symptomatic patients with mild TBI and impaired quality of life are at risk for hypopituitarism and should be offered neuroendocrine testing.
PMID 26172127 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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Endocr Pract. 2015 Jul;21(7):851-3.